Roses have accompanied man for hundreds of years. Without a doubt, they are among the oldest cultivated garden plants, and the proverbial rose luxury of the old Roman Empire allows us to assume that already then roses were surrounded by special reverence. Subsequent epochs did not in any way weaken the true ball – here given to these flowers. In many gardens, the roses secured a stable position.
From age to age, then from quarter of a century to quarter of a century, and today, year after year, new varieties with a fairy-tale play of colors, with almost unrivalled form, spreading a beautiful scent. But also the most ordinary representatives of roses, hedge and wild varieties, deserve our attention. They are the inseparable companions of natural shrubs and should not be missing in our gardens.
Find a sunny place
Roses are children of the sun and require an open, sunny position. We never plant roses in shady places and under tree crowns or near larger bushes. Roses that grow under wide umbrellas of spread out branches suffer from dripping water on them. The longer the leaves of the roses are wet day and night, the greater the chance of undisturbed multiplication of all kinds of fungal diseases. Roses also don’t like especially hot, narrow angles, where the movement of air is inhibited, so necessary for drying the leaves and evenly distributing heat. In the corners of gardens, where in stuffy weather the air almost stands, rose leaf diseases spread very easily.
Soil preparation for Roses in the Garden
The abundance of flowering, beauty and durability depend on the substrate and its proper preparation. Roses grow well on almost all kinds of soils, as long as they are properly cultivated and contain the necessary nutrients. The best conditions for strong, healthy growth and beautiful flowering are created by deeply loosened soils (roses develop very long roots reaching far into the ground), clayey-technical, rich in nutrients and at the same time slightly acidic (pH factor 5.5-6.5). If the acidity is too high, the iron, which is necessary for plants, is not available any more, which leads to chlorosis. You can then possibly enrich the substrate with lime flour, so as to obtain less acidity. Soils with a tendency to clump and water retention, i.e. cold substrates, are unsuitable; before planting roses they should be improved.
The soil on which the roses have grown for many years is suitable for further cultivation, provided that it is deeply loosened and enriched with compost and humus.
Planting Roses in the Garden
If we happen to get frozen rose seedlings, we leave them in an unheated but frost-protected room, so that they can slowly be thawed out, and only then we unpack them. If we can’t plant the bushes right away, we should put them somewhere in the garden, covering them with a mound of earth reaching at least 10 cm above the grafting site.
We immerse bare-root roses in a bucket of water two to four hours before planting, so that the roots and tissues can soak up properly. This procedure is particularly important if we plant the plants in spring, taking them out of the cold storeroom.
How to prune roses?
Just before planting, cut longer ones shorten more strongly. If we plant the rose in spring, we shorten the shoots more strongly. – The ends of all roots, a bit. On stronger ones we should leave a maximum of five holes, on weaker ones we should leave three, while completely weak ones we should remove. The cutting place should be about 3-5 mm above the mesh, because the shoot itself dries very easily. If someone isn’t familiar with the principle of counting the meshes, he can shorten the whole plant to 15 cm. Park roses and wild roses should be shortened by half, while in the case of climbing roses we should leave at least ten holes.
When planting roses in the garden proceed exactly the same way as when planting unpruned shrubs. Prepare large holes for the seedling and loosen the root ball. The roots should be placed as wide as possible, so that they correspond to their natural position. They should be laid out or placed in a position resembling a hand spread like a fan, facing down. When planting, special attention should be paid to the root tips: under no circumstances should they rise upwards. The roses are extremely sensitive to this and they can’t stand it very well, which is reflected in their later poor growth.
After planting, sprinkle the roots and shrub with soil and water very generously. After soaking in the water, we should plant the soil well and sprinkle it so that only the tips of the shoots protrude. Exactly the same rule applies also when planting in spring.
Protection against winter
In areas with harsh climates, where the temperature often drops below -10°C, roses require winter shielding to protect them from frost and too strong temperature fluctuations on sunny winter and early spring days. In the autumn, from the end of November to the beginning of December we sprinkle about 15 cm on the plant base.
Small rose bushes and many-flowered roses can be covered with conifer twigs in case of frost. Also in late autumn we shorten the rose bushes a bit, so that they can be better covered.
|Groups of varieties||Characteristics|
|Many-flowered Roses||Blooming profusely. Even flowering height. They create colorful spots visible from a distance. They are suitable for small and large plantings in the garden, on the edge of terraces, in front of houses, as a frame of paths, low hedges, and for planting tombstones and large pots.|
|Noble Roses||Usually on the stem only one or two or three full, elegantly formed flowers with a very pleasant aroma. Viewed mostly from a close distance. In group plantings. Ideal especially for beds along paths. Cut flowers.|
|Shrub Roses||Attractive flowers, often with very bright colors. For lonely positions or for group planting, e.g. on lawns, among perennial beds or hedges.|
|Climbing Roses||Fixed to grilles, supports and pergolas or to a lonely position. Free-growing, beautifully composed on the slopes or routed along the tops of walls.|
|Ground Cover Roses||For surface planting, especially on slopes or in areas adjacent to the garden.|
|Miniature Roses||For heather planting. Rockeries. On the outskirts of the beds, tombstones, to balcony boxes, wooden pots.|
|Wild Roses||Especially for natural or rustic gardens, for single stands or for group plantings and hedges and as a strengthening of slopes and their greening.|