Before you get into the thicket of rose bushes with a secateurs in your hand, think carefully about which group a given rose belongs to, because not all of them are cut equally. Another cut is required for large-flowered roses, a completely different climbing rose that blooms once a year, and yet another for climbing roses that repeat flowering. To make it easier for you to learn how to cut, remember some general rules for cutting roses.
The basic cutting of roses is always done in spring, not too early; a good date is the moment of forsythia flowering (early April). In autumn, we can only remove the blooming flowers.
In all shrubs we start by removing dead, dry and frozen shoots. We cut to healthy green tissue, diagonally, about half a centimeter above the outer healthy bud. Shorten the broken twigs. If you want to remove the old shoot, you have to cut it right next to the branch from which it grows, without leaving a stump. We also cut out frail branches and very old and crossed shoots. Lubricate the thickest cutting surfaces with a garden ointment.
Spring cutting is to stimulate the roses to release new shoots on which the flowers will develop and to rejuvenate them, if necessary. Summer pruning is to extend the flowering period.
In the summer, we remove the flowering flowers from some shrubs. This guarantees abundant binding of new flower buds.
We regularly remove root offshoots and wild shoots. They grow below the grafting site, grow faster, are fragile and have smaller lighter leaves with a serrated edge. We remove them as soon as possible, so they don’t weaken the bushes.
For cutting we use sharp and clean (disinfected) pruning shears and balls. Each cut is a wound and through this wound various diseases can get into the rose body. We do not hurry. Each twig is cut diagonally half a centimeter above the bud. The cutting plane should fall in the opposite direction to the one on which the bud is placed.
The roses, like other shrubs, should not be cut in late autumn, because every cut is a wound and exposes the plant to frost and disease. You can only cut blooming or broken twigs, i.e. make small care cuts and (no later than September) slightly shorten the over-extended shoots.
Remove Root Offshoots
In the summer, the so-called wild boars grow out of the roses, which you will recognize by the fact that their leaves consist of seven smaller leaves and are slightly lighter than the other leaves. Such a wild branch usually appears in the lower part of the bush and grows from the root of the rootstock, on which the noble part is grafted. It has to be removed as soon as possible, because it takes away the rose’s juice, moisture and food. It is a mistake to cut the wild boar above the ground, because it will cause its propagation. You have to cut it in the place from which it grows, i.e. right by the root. In order to do this, cut the ground next to the roots and cut off the wild boar. Do it on a cloudy day, be careful not to damage the roots, after cutting it quickly fill the hole and water it.
Remove the Bloomed Flowers
Removing bloomed flowers in summer is to stimulate the rose to develop new flowers and to extend the flowering period. Only cut flowers in roses that repeat flowering. Cut the blooming flowers of large-flowered roses one by one, together with a part of the twig, 0.5 cm above 1.-2. well-developed leaf located under the flower. The attractive flowers of flowerbeds cut down the whole bundles. Cut off the branch 0,5 cm above 1.-2. leaf. Don’t leave the stump longer than 0,5 cm, because you can stop the release of a new branch, which should grow from the bud located at the petiole.
General Rules for Cutting Noble Roses
Noble roses are very often found in gardens. Bushes can be higher or lower, depending on the variety. Their lovers are delighted by beautiful, large flowers developing individually at the ends of erect stems, which are perfect for a vase. Cutting the large-flowered rose is supposed to make it produce as many as possible such straight, strong shoots ending in impressive flowers. Young, newly planted shrubs of noble roses should be cut short in spring, so that no more than 2-3 buds remain on the shoot. Adult shrubs should be pruned every year in spring, preferably in first half of April. Remove weak, thin shoots growing inside the bush. Healthy, strong shoots should be shortened about 20 cm above the ground surface, cutting over the eye directed outside the bush. In summer remove the blooming flowers. In autumn generally don’t cut, you can only cut the ends of twigs with bloomed flowers.
General Rules for Cutting Many-Flowered and Miniature Roses
Many-flowered roses are characterized by the fact that their flowers form at the ends of stems not individually, but are collected in bouquets and are slightly smaller than the flowers of large-flowered roses. Cutting these bushes is to stimulate them to produce as many healthy, abundantly flowering shoots as possible. In spring shorten all the shoots at a height of about 15-20 cm, always cutting over the bud directed outside the bush. Remove all the twigs frozen, dry, broken, directed to the middle of the bush. Miniature roses are similar to bed roses, only slightly smaller and cut them similarly, cutting all the shoots in spring at a height of about 10 cm.
Cutting Shrub Roses
Shrub roses are large or medium sized shrubs blooming very profusely and long. They are not difficult to grow, they can grow both in the sun and in partial shade. Some of them bloom once a season, others repeat flowering. Depending on whether the rose repeats flowering or not, it is cut differently.
Shrub roses that bloom once a season don’t have to be pruned at all. Only in spring remove broken, dry twigs. Don’t let something tempt you to shorten the twigs, because there are flower buds that the rose tied last year and they will develop into flowers in early summer.
After flowering don’t cut the flowers, because many shrub roses will have decorative fruits. Leave shrub roses repeating the flowering in the spring, only remove the frozen twigs. In summer, remove the bloomed inflorescences by cutting them over the 2nd leaf. Thanks to this the bush will produce more new flowers. To keep the shrub roses in good condition, every few years in spring remove the 1-2 oldest shoots right next to the ground surface. If the shrub is poorly blooming, you can try to rejuvenate it by shortening all the twigs about half.
Cutting Ground Cover Roses
Ground Cover roses should cover the ground surface as soon as possible. That is why it is necessary to keep as many long, deposited shoots as possible, removing only frozen and damaged ones in spring. Do not cut the twigs with flowers every year. Only every 4 years in spring, shorten them at 15 cm.
General Rules for Cutting Climbing Roses
Climbing roses produce very long stems, richly covered with flowers. We plant them at different kinds of supports – pergolas, walls, arbours. Numerous flowers are tied on the side shoots, growing out of the main shoots, provided that these shoots are guided horizontally or bend them like an arch. If you let them grow vertically, the flowers will be only at the ends of the shoots. Climbing roses, like park roses, are divided into those that flower only once and those that repeat flowering and therefore need to be cut in different ways.
Climbing roses that bloom once a season in spring do not cut (apart from removing damaged shoots). In summer, do not cut the flowers after flowering, but you can then cut out the oldest 1-2 shoots completely.
For climbing roses that repeat flowering, in spring shorten the side shoots over the 2nd bud and cut right next to the ground 1-2 old branches. In summer, remove the blooming flowers on an ongoing basis to stimulate the bush to create new inflorescences.